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Nanoparticles are extensively studied for drug delivery and are proving to be effective in drug delivery and the diagnostic field. Drug delivery to lungs has its advantages over other routes of administration. Inhalable powders consisting of nanoparticles are gaining much interest in respiratory research and clinical therapy. Particle engineering technique is a key factor to develop inhalable formulations that can successfully deliver drug with improved therapeutic effect and enhanced targeting. Inhalable nanoparticles in the solid-state dry powders for targeted pulmonary delivery offer unique advantages and are an exciting new area of research. Nasal delivery of inhalable nanoparticulate powders is gaining research attention recently, particularly in vaccine applications, systemic drug delivery in the treatment of pain, and non-invasive brain targeting. Fundamental aspects and recent advancements along with future prospects of inhalable powders consisting of nanoparticles in the solid-state for respiratory delivery are presented.

BACKGROUND:
Lung transplantation (LTx) benefit for survival in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients placed on the wait list is not well studied.

METHODS:
To predict the relationship between initial forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and the hazard ratio (HR) associated with LTx in CF patients, the United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried from 2005 to 2006 for adult patients with CF. Survival was assessed from wait list entry time until death on wait list, death after LTx, or censoring. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the effect of LTx. The first model estimated the HR of LTx with adjustment for FEV1 or FVC and other covariates, and the second model estimated the HR of LTx conditional on FEV1 or FVC at listing.

RESULTS:
Two hundred seventy-eight patients with CF were included in the cohort, and 277 were used for survival analysis. Lung transplantation reduced the risk for death controlling for FEV1 (HR, 0.601; 95% confidence interval, 0.375 to 0.964; p = 0.035) or controlling for FVC (HR, 0.547; 95% confidence interval, 0.336 to 0.889; p = 0.015). Interaction models found that the HR of LTx varied significantly across initial FEV1 and FVC, with the predicted LTx HR and 95% confidence interval being protective (HR < 1) at FEV1 of 25% or less and FVC of 40% or less, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:
The benefit of LTx in adults with CF was significant at a lower baseline FEV1 than expected. A threshold for baseline FVC was established below which LTx was protective.

The study reports on the drug release behavior of a potent synthetic somatostatin analogue, octreotide acetate, from biocompatible and biodegradable microspheres composed of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) following a single intramuscular depot injection. The serum octreotide levels of three Oakwood Laboratories formulations and one Sandostatin LAR(®) formulation were compared. Three formulations of octreotide acetate-loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared by a solvent extraction and evaporation procedure using PLGA polymers with different molecular weights. The in vivo drug release study was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were taken at predetermined time points for up to 70 days. Drug serum concentrations were quantified using a radioimmunoassay procedure consisting of radiolabeled octreotide. The three octreotide PLGA microsphere formulations and Sandostatin LAR(®) all showed a two-phase drug release profile (i.e., bimodal). The peak serum drug concentration of octreotide was reached in 30 min for all formulations followed by a decline after 6 h. Following this initial burst and decline, a second-release phase occurred after 3 days. This second-release phase exhibited sustained-release behavior, as the drug serum levels were discernible between days 7 and 42. Using pharmacokinetic computer simulations, it was estimated that the steady-state octreotide serum drug levels would be predicted to fall in the range of 40-130 pg/10 μL and 20-100 pg/10 μL following repeat dosing of the Oakwood formulations and Sandostatin LAR(®) every 28 days and every 42 days at a dose of 3 mg/rat, respectively.

In this contribution, a pulse sequence is described for recording accordion-optimized DEPT experiments. The proposed ACCORDEPT experiment detects a wide range of one-bond coupling constants using accordion optimization. As a proof of concept, this strategy has been applied to a mesogen containing a large range of one-bond (1)J(CH) coupling constants associated with the various structural elements. The ACCORDEPT experiment afforded significant enhancements for the resonances with the larger (1)J(CH) couplings, similar SNR for aliphatic resonances, but reduced SNR for aliphatic resonances as compared with the standard DEPT experiment. In addition, the ACCORDEPT is straightforward to implement, does not require any supplementary calibration procedures and can be used under automated conditions without difficulty by inexperienced users.

The origin of the epidemic of IgE-associated (allergic) diseases is unclear. MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy), an FP7 European Union project (No. 264357), aims to generate novel knowledge on the mechanisms of initiation of allergy and to propose early diagnosis, prevention, and targets for therapy. A novel phenotype definition and an integrative translational approach are needed to understand how a network of molecular and environmental factors can lead to complex allergic diseases. A novel, stepwise, large-scale, and integrative approach will be led by a network of complementary experts in allergy, epidemiology, allergen biochemistry, immunology, molecular biology, epigenetics, functional genomics, bioinformatics, computational and systems biology. The following steps are proposed: (i) Identification of 'classical' and 'novel' phenotypes in existing birth cohorts; (ii) Building discovery of the relevant mechanisms in IgE-associated allergic diseases in existing longitudinal birth cohorts and Karelian children; (iii) Validation and redefinition of classical and novel phenotypes of IgE-associated allergic diseases; and (iv) Translational integration of systems biology outcomes into health care, including societal aspects. MeDALL will lead to: (i) A better understanding of allergic phenotypes, thus expanding current knowledge of the genomic and environmental determinants of allergic diseases in an integrative way; (ii) Novel diagnostic tools for the early diagnosis of allergy, targets for the development of novel treatment modalities, and prevention of allergic diseases; (iii) Improving the health of European citizens as well as increasing the competitiveness and boosting the innovative capacity of Europe, while addressing global health issues and ethical issues.

The mechanisms of compartmentalization of intermediates and secretion of penicillins and cephalosporins in β-lactam antibiotic-producing fungi are of great interest. In Acremonium chrysogenum, there is a compartmentalization of the central steps of the CPC (cephalosporin C) biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, we found in the 'early' CPC cluster a new gene named cefP encoding a putative transmembrane protein containing 11 transmembrane spanner. Targeted inactivation of cefP by gene replacement showed that it is essential for CPC biosynthesis. The disrupted mutant is unable to synthesize cephalosporins and secretes a significant amount of IPN (isopenicillin N), indicating that the mutant is blocked in the conversion of IPN into PenN (penicillin N). The production of cephalosporin in the disrupted mutant was restored by transformation with both cefP and cefR (a regulatory gene located upstream of cefP), but not with cefP alone. Fluorescence microscopy studies with an EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein)-SKL (Ser-Lys-Leu) protein (a peroxisomal-targeted marker) as a control showed that the red-fluorescence-labelled CefP protein co-localized in the peroxisomes with the control peroxisomal protein. In summary, CefP is a peroxisomal membrane protein probably involved in the import of IPN into the peroxisomes where it is converted into PenN by the two-component CefD1/CefD2 protein system.

The technical advances in microscopy imaging techniques have been applied to assess the fate of drugs for researching respiratory drug delivery in ex vivo and in vivo experiments. Recent developments in optical imaging (confocal microscopy, multi-photon microscopy, fluorescence imaging (FLI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI)), and in non-optical imaging (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computing tomography (CT), positron-emission tomography (PET) and single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)) are presented with their derivative medical devices. Novel microscopy have been utilized to address many biological questions in basic research and are becoming powerful clinical tools for non-invasive objective diagnosis, guided treatment, and monitoring therapies. The goal of this paper is to present recent advances in microscopy imaging techniques and to discuss their novel applications in respiratory drug delivery imaging.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease which behaves as a complex genetic trait. At least 20 SLE risk susceptibility loci have been mapped using both candidate gene and genome-wide association strategies. The gene encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL18, has been reported as a candidate gene showing an association with SLE. This pleiotropic cytokine is expressed in a range of immune cells and has been shown to induce interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α. Serum interleukin-18 has been reported to be elevated in patients with SLE. Here we aimed to densely map single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across IL18 to investigate the association across this locus. We genotyped 36 across IL18 by Illumina bead express in 372 UK SLE trios. We also genotyped these SNPs in a further 508 non-trio UK cases and were able to accurately impute a dense marker set across IL18 in WTCCC2 controls with a total of 258 SNPs. To improve the study's power, we also imputed a total of 158 SNPs across the IL18 locus using data from an SLE genome-wide association study and performed association testing. In total, we analysed 1818 cases and 10 770 controls in this study. Our large well-powered study (98% to detect odds ratio = 1.5, with respect to rs360719) showed that no individual SNP or haplotype was associated with SLE in any of the cohorts studied. We conclude that we were unable to replicate the SLE association with rs360719 located upstream of IL18. No evidence for association with any other common variant at IL18 with SLE was found.

AIMS:
Studies suggest that insulin-signaling molecules are present in the pancreatic islets. For this reason, the effects of insulin glulisine, insulin aspart and regular human insulin (RHI) on the function and molecular features of isolated human pancreatic islets were investigated.

METHODS:
Human pancreatic islets were prepared by collagenase digestion and density-gradient purification of pancreata from multiple organ donors. Islets were then cultured for 48 h in the presence of 5.5 (normal) or 22.2 (high) mmol/L of glucose with and without glulisine, aspart and RHI (10 or 100 nmol/L). Functional (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion) and molecular (quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot) studies were performed at the end of the different incubation conditions.

RESULTS:
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was blunted in islets cultured in 22.2 mmol/L of glucose, with no significant effects from the exogenous added insulins. In islets maintained at 5.5 mmol/L of glucose, insulin receptor (IR) expression was reduced by low RHI, while phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase p110-alpha (PI3K) was enhanced by both concentrations of glulisine and aspart, and by high RHI. In islets preexposed to high glucose, IR expression was increased by both concentrations of aspart and RHI, but not by glulisine. Glulisine at high concentration significantly (P<0.05) increased PI3K expression. Glulisine and RHI significantly increased IRS-2 phosphorylation compared with control and aspart (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION:
Insulin analogues have differential effects on the expression of insulin-signaling molecules in human pancreatic islets that are also dependent on the degree of glucose exposure.

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of carboxymethyl chitosan anti-adhesion solution on prevention of postsurgical adhesion. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: 0.9 % normal saline solution (group A), hyaluronic acid gels (group B) and carboxymethyl chitosan anti-adhesion solution (group C). The animals were treated with normal saline, hyaluronic acid gels or carboxymethyl chitosan anti-adhesion solution at the time of surgery. After 2 or 3 weeks, the degree of adhesions and histological effects were determined. The adhesions in groups B and C were significantly decreased, and the levels of TGF-β1 and hydroxyproline in group C were significantly lower than that in group A (P < 0.05). The histopathology in group C showed fewer inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. Carboxymethyl chitosan anti-adhesion solution can effectively prevent postoperative adhesion which is a promising drug delivery system in the context of postsurgical anti-adhesion.

Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All mycobacteriophages characterized to date are dsDNA tailed phages, and have either siphoviral or myoviral morphotypes. However, their genetic diversity is considerable, and although sixty-two genomes have been sequenced and comparatively analyzed, these likely represent only a small portion of the diversity of the mycobacteriophage population at large. Here we report the isolation, sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of 18 new mycobacteriophages isolated from geographically distinct locations within the United States. Although no clear correlation between location and genome type can be discerned, these genomes expand our knowledge of mycobacteriophage diversity and enhance our understanding of the roles of mobile elements in viral evolution. Expansion of the number of mycobacteriophages grouped within Cluster A provides insights into the basis of immune specificity in these temperate phages, and we also describe a novel example of apparent immunity theft. The isolation and genomic analysis of bacteriophages by freshman college students provides an example of an authentic research experience for novice scientists.

BACKGROUND:
Brazil initiated universal immunization of infants with the G1P[8] human rotavirus (RV) vaccine in March 2006. This study evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalizations.

METHODS:
Matched case-control study conducted at 4 hospitals in Belém from May 2008 to May 2009. Cases were children hospitalized with RVGE age-eligible to have received 2 doses of the human RV vaccine (≥ 12 weeks of age and born after March 6, 2006). For each case, 1 neighborhood and 1 hospital control without gastroenteritis was selected, matching by birth date (± 8 and ± 6 weeks, respectively). Matched odds ratio of 2-dose RV vaccination in cases versus controls was used to estimate VE (1 - odds ratio × 100%).

RESULTS:
Of 538 RVGE cases, 507 hospital controls and 346 neighborhood controls included, 54%, 61%, and 74% had received both RV vaccine doses. VE against RVGE hospitalization was 75.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.1-86.0) using neighborhood controls and 40.0% (95% CI: 14.2-58.1) using hospital controls. VE in children 3 to 11 months and ≥ 12 months of age was 95.7% (95% CI: 67.8-99.4) and 65.1% (95% CI: 37.2-80.6) using neighborhood controls, and 55.6% (95% CI: 12.3-77.5) and 32.1% (95% CI: -3.7-55.5) using hospital controls. G2P[4] accounted for 82.0% of RVGE hospitalizations. G2P[4]-specific VE was 75.4% (95% CI: 56.7-86.0) using neighborhood controls and 38.9% (95% CI: 11.1-58.0) using hospital controls.

CONCLUSIONS:
Although fully heterotypic G2P[4] was the predominant RV strain, good VE was demonstrated. VE was highest in children aged 3 to 11 months. However, protection in children ≥ 12 months of age, important for optimal public health impact, was significantly sustained based on estimates obtained using neighborhood controls.

Long-term outcomes after lung transplantation remain poor mainly to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Currently, treatment options for BOS are very limited. Strategies to prevent and treat this complication include the use of aerosolized therapy with only cyclosporine used in patients to date. We describe the use of aerosolized tacrolimus in a lung transplant recipient with BOS. The patient demonstrated clinical improvement in functional capacity and oxygenation while receiving tacrolimus by nebulization. Further research is needed to study whether aerosolized tacrolimus is beneficial in lung transplant recipients with BOS.

Targeted pulmonary delivery facilitates the direct application of bioactive materials to the lungs in a controlled manner and provides an exciting platform for targeting magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to the lungs. Iron oxide MNPs remotely heat in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) providing unique opportunities for therapeutic applications such as hyperthermia. In this study, spray drying was used to formulate magnetic nanocomposite microparticles ("MnMs") consisting of iron oxide MNPs and d-mannitol. The physicochemical properties of these MnMs were evaluated and the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance of the dry powders was measured by the Next Generation Impactor(®). For all powders, the mass median aerosol diameter (MMAD) was <5μm and deposition patterns revealed that MnMs could deposit throughout the lungs. Heating studies with a custom AMF showed that MNPs retain excellent thermal properties after spray drying into composite dry powders, with specific absorption ratios (SAR)>200W/g, and in vitro studies on a human lung cell line indicated moderate cytotoxicity of these materials. These inhalable composites present a class of materials with many potential applications and pose a promising approach for thermal treatment of the lungs through targeted pulmonary administration of MNPs.

The aim of this study was to define the effects on antigen-presenting cells of the expression of HIV antigens from an attenuated poxvirus vector. We have analyzed the transcriptional changes in gene expression following infection of human immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the genes encoding the gp120 and Gag-Pol-Nef antigens of HIV type 1 clade B (referred to as MVA-B) versus parental MVA infection. Using microarray technology and real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we demonstrated that the HIV proteins induced the expression of cytokines, cytokine receptors, chemokines, chemokine receptors, and molecules involved in antigen uptake and processing, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. Levels of mRNAs for interleukin-1, beta interferon, CCR8, and SCYA20 were higher after HIV antigen production. MVA-B infection also modulated the expression of antigen processing and presentation genes: the gene for MICA was upregulated, whereas those for HLA-DRA and HSPA5 were downregulated. Indeed, the increased expression of the gene for MICA, a glycoprotein related to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, was shown to enhance the interaction between MVA-B-infected target cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes. The expression profiles of the genes for protein kinases such as JAK1 and IRAK2 were activated after HIV antigen expression. Several genes included in the JAK-STAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways were regulated after HIV antigen expression. Our findings provide the first gene signatures in DC of a candidate MVA-B vaccine expressing four HIV antigens and identified the biological roles of some of the regulatory genes, like that for MICA, which will help in the design of more effective MVA-derived vaccines.

Respirable microparticles/nanoparticles of the antibiotics vancomycin (VCM) and clarithromycin (CLM) were successfully designed and developed by novel organic solution advanced spray drying from methanol solution. Formulation optimization was achieved through statistical experimental design of pump feeding rates of 25% (Low P), 50% (Medium P) and 75% (High P). Systematic and comprehensive physicochemical characterization and imaging were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot-stage microscopy (HSM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Karl Fischer titration (KFT), laser size diffraction (LSD), gravimetric vapor sorption (GVS), confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and spectroscopy for chemical imaging mapping. These novel spray-dried (SD) microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders displayed excellent aerosol dispersion performance as dry powder inhalers (DPIs) with high values in emitted dose (ED), respirable fraction (RF), and fine particle fraction (FPF). VCM DPIs displayed better aerosol dispersion performance compared to CLM DPIs which was related to differences in the physicochemical and particle properties of VCM and CLM. In addition, organic solution advanced co-spray drying particle engineering design was employed to successfully produce co-spray-dried (co-SD) multifunctional microparticulate/nanoparticulate aerosol powder formulations of VCM and CLM with the essential lung surfactant phospholipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), for controlled release pulmonary nanomedicine delivery as inhalable dry powder aerosols. Formulation optimization was achieved through statistical experimental design of molar ratios of co-SD VCM:DPPC and co-SD CLM:DPPC. XRPD and DSC confirmed that the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid-state was preserved following spray drying. Co-SD VCM:DPPC and co-SD CLM:DPPC dry powder aerosols demonstrated controlled release of antibiotic drug that was fitted to various controlled release mathematical fitting models. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model described the best data fit for all powders suggesting super case-II transport mechanism of controlled release. Excellent aerosol dispersion performance for all co-SD microparticulate/nanoparticulate DPIs was higher than the SD antibiotic drugs suggesting that DPPC acts as an aerosol performance enhancer for these antibiotic aerosol dry powders. Co-SD VCM:DPPC DPIs had higher aerosol dispersion parameters compared to co-SD CLM:DPPC which was related to differences in the physicochemical properties of VCM and CLM.

BACKGROUND:
The C-allele of rs13266634 located in SLC30A8 (ZNT8) has been strongly associated with decreased insulin release and with type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility in some but not all studies. To shed further light on this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between rs13266634 and T2D in different ethnic groups and assessed the relationships between SLC30A8 genotypes and some properties of isolated human islets.

METHODS:
From 32 original articles, a total of 77,234 control individuals and 44,945 subjects with T2D were studied in meta-analysis. To assess the relationships between SLC30A8 genotype and islet cell phenotype, insulin secretion in response to glucose, glucose plus arginine and glucose plus glibenclamide was determined in pancreatic islets isolated from 82 multiorgan donors genotyped for the rs13266634 polymorphism. Quantitative expression of SLC30A8, Insulin and Glucagon mRNA was also measured.

RESULTS:
Overall, each SLC30A8 risk allele was associated with a 14% increased risk for T2D (P=2.78 x 10(-34)). The population risk of T2D attributable to this polymorphism was estimated at 9.5% in Europeans and 8.1% in East Asians. Basal and stimulated insulin secretion from human islets as well as islet expressions of SLC30A8, Insulin and Glucagon were not affected by the presence of the polymorphism. However, SLC30A8 expression was positively correlated with Insulin (r=0.75, P=6.43 x 10(-6)) and Glucagon (r: 0.70, P=4.89 x 10(-5)) levels.

CONCLUSIONS:
The SLC30A8 rs13266634 polymorphism is among the most confirmed genetic markers of T2D in Europeans and East Asians. In isolated human islets, the risk C-allele does not affect ex-vivo insulin secretion and SLC30A8 expression, which is correlated with that of insulin and glucagon.

The objectives of this study were: systematic investigation of dry powder aerosol performance using standardized entrainment tubes (SETs) and lactose-based formulations with two model drugs; mechanistic evaluation of performance data by powder aerosol deaggregation equation (PADE). The drugs (IPB and FP) were prepared in sieved and milled lactose carriers (2% w/w). Aerosol studies were performed using SETs (shear stresses tau(s) = 0.624-13.143 N/m(2)) by twin-stage liquid impinger, operated at 60 L/min. PADE was applied for formulation screening. Excellent correlation was observed when PADE was adopted correlating FPF to tau(s). Higher tau(s) corresponded to higher FPF values followed by a plateau representing invariance of FPF with increasing tau(s). The R(2) values for PADE linear regression were 0.9905-0.9999. Performance described in terms of the maximum FPF (FPF(max): 15.0-37.6%) resulted in a rank order of ML-B/IPB > ML-A/IPB > SV-A/IPB > SV-B/IPB > ML-B/FP > ML-A/FP > SV-B/FP > SV-A/FP. The performance of IPB was superior to FP in all formulations. The difference in lactose monohydrate carriers was less pronounced for the FPF in IPB than in FP formulations. The novel PADE offers a robust method for evaluating aerodynamic performance of dry powder formulations within a defined tau(s) range.

BACKGROUND:
Traffic-related air pollution is related with asthma, and this association may be modified by genetic factors.

OBJECTIVES:
We investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms potentially modifying the association between home outdoor levels of modeled nitrogen dioxide and asthma.

METHODS:
Adults from 13 cities of the second European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II) were included (n = 2,920), for whom both DNA and outdoor NO(2) estimates were available. Home addresses were geocoded and linked to modeled outdoor NO(2) estimates, as a marker of local traffic-related pollution. We examined asthma prevalence and evaluated polymorphisms in genes involved in oxidative stress pathways [gluthatione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1), T1 (GSTT1), and P1 (GSTP1) and NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1)], inflammatory response [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA)], immunologic response [Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)], and airway reactivity [adrenergic receptor beta2 (ADRB2)].

RESULTS:
The association between modeled NO(2) and asthma prevalence was significant for carriers of the most common genotypes of NQO1 rs2917666 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-2.24], TNFA rs2844484 (OR = 2.02; 95% CI, 1.30-3.27). For new-onset asthma, the effect of NO(2) was significant for the most common genotype of NQO1 rs2917666 (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.09-2.16). A significant interaction was found between NQO1 rs2917666 and NO(2) for asthma prevalence (p = 0.02) and new-onset asthma (p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS:
Genetic polymorphisms in the NQO1 gene are related to asthma susceptibility among persons exposed to local traffic-related air pollution. This points to the importance of antioxidant pathways in the protection against the effects of air pollution on asthma.

OBJECTIVE:
We assessed whether maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) levels during pregnancy and CRP gene variations are associated with wheezing and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in offspring.

STUDY DESIGN:
Information on wheezing and LRTIs in the offspring at 6 and 14 months of age, and maternal CRP levels and genotype was obtained from a population-based birth cohort.

RESULTS:
A total of 63 children (12.5%) experienced recurrent wheezing and 61 (12.4%) a recurrent diagnosis of LRTIs. Children in the highest tertile of maternal CRP levels had a higher risk of experiencing recurrent wheezing (adjusted odds ratio, 2.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-6.71) and being diagnosed with recurrent LRTIs (odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-5.55), as compared with children in the lowest tertile. The rs1205 polymorphism influenced maternal serum CRP levels but not the risk of the offspring outcomes.

CONCLUSION:
Higher CRP levels in pregnancy are associated with wheezing and LRTIs in offspring. However, genetic variation in CRP influencing maternal levels is not related to these phenotypes.

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