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The aim of this study was to define the effects on antigen-presenting cells of the expression of HIV antigens from an attenuated poxvirus vector. We have analyzed the transcriptional changes in gene expression following infection of human immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the genes encoding the gp120 and Gag-Pol-Nef antigens of HIV type 1 clade B (referred to as MVA-B) versus parental MVA infection. Using microarray technology and real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we demonstrated that the HIV proteins induced the expression of cytokines, cytokine receptors, chemokines, chemokine receptors, and molecules involved in antigen uptake and processing, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. Levels of mRNAs for interleukin-1, beta interferon, CCR8, and SCYA20 were higher after HIV antigen production. MVA-B infection also modulated the expression of antigen processing and presentation genes: the gene for MICA was upregulated, whereas those for HLA-DRA and HSPA5 were downregulated. Indeed, the increased expression of the gene for MICA, a glycoprotein related to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, was shown to enhance the interaction between MVA-B-infected target cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes. The expression profiles of the genes for protein kinases such as JAK1 and IRAK2 were activated after HIV antigen expression. Several genes included in the JAK-STAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways were regulated after HIV antigen expression. Our findings provide the first gene signatures in DC of a candidate MVA-B vaccine expressing four HIV antigens and identified the biological roles of some of the regulatory genes, like that for MICA, which will help in the design of more effective MVA-derived vaccines.

GLP-1 and GIP are incretins known to affect beta-cell function and turnover. However, information on the direct actions of these hormones on human islet cells is limited. We tested the effects of acute (45min) or prolonged (2days) exposure to GLP-1 or GIP, alone or in combination, on the function and some molecular features of human islets isolated from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic multiorgan donors. Acutely, both GLP-1 and, more markedly so, GIP, significantly potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin release, with no apparent synergic action. Some of these effects were observed with type 2 diabetic islets as well. Following prolonged exposure to the incretins, improved insulin secretion was observed, and transcription of insulin, PDX-1 and Bcl-2 was increased in both non-diabetic and diabetic islets, with the combination of GLP-1 and GIP showing more significant effects. Although it is still unclear at what extent these beta-cell direct actions of individual or combined incretins occur in-vivo in humans, nevertheless the results of the present study suggest that enhancing the exposure of pancreatic islets to circulating levels of both incretins may be useful for therapeutical purposes.

Targeted pulmonary delivery facilitates the direct application of bioactive materials to the lungs in a controlled manner and provides an exciting platform for targeting magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to the lungs. Iron oxide MNPs remotely heat in the presence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) providing unique opportunities for therapeutic applications such as hyperthermia. In this study, spray drying was used to formulate magnetic nanocomposite microparticles ("MnMs") consisting of iron oxide MNPs and d-mannitol. The physicochemical properties of these MnMs were evaluated and the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance of the dry powders was measured by the Next Generation Impactor(®). For all powders, the mass median aerosol diameter (MMAD) was <5μm and deposition patterns revealed that MnMs could deposit throughout the lungs. Heating studies with a custom AMF showed that MNPs retain excellent thermal properties after spray drying into composite dry powders, with specific absorption ratios (SAR)>200W/g, and in vitro studies on a human lung cell line indicated moderate cytotoxicity of these materials. These inhalable composites present a class of materials with many potential applications and pose a promising approach for thermal treatment of the lungs through targeted pulmonary administration of MNPs.

BACKGROUND:
Lipid-laden macrophage (LLM) index could be potentially useful in assessing gastroesophageal (GE) reflux and aspiration after lung transplantation (LT) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).

METHODS:
A retrospective review of CF patients undergoing LT and/or laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011, was performed.

RESULTS:
Seventeen CF patients (nine women), mean (± SD) age 27.9 ± 7.5 yr, underwent LT with mean (± SD) pre-transplant FEV(1) of 20.9 ± 5.0% predicted. Seventy percentage (12/17) of patients underwent LNF without complications within 1-2 wk of LT. After LT, but prior to antireflux surgery, there was no significant difference in the mean (± SD) baseline LLM index (154 ± 41 vs. 146 ± 51, p = NS) between patients who were to undergo LNF and patients who did not. After LNF, a significant reduction in the mean (± SD) LLM index occurred following the procedure (154 ± 41-74 ± 54, p < 0.0001) while each patient reported resolution of symptoms of GE reflux, whereas 40% (2/5) undergoing only medical treatment reported resolution of symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS:
Significant reduction in the LLM index occurred after LNF in CF patients after LT that correlated with resolution of clinical symptoms of GE reflux.

OBJECTIVES:
Heart and lung transplant recipients are at risk for invasive fungal infections. This study evaluated the affect of single-agent antifungal prophylaxis with itraconazole on the rate of fungal infections after heart or lung transplant.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
An observational, retrospective study was performed to evaluate the rate of fungal infections in heart and lung transplant recipients at the University of Kentucky Medical Center over 4.5 years who received itraconazole as a single therapy prophylaxis.

RESULTS:
Eighty-three recipients (42 heart, 41 lung) had an overall fungal infection incidence of 16.9% (14/83), while the incidence was 11.9% for heart recipients (5/42), and 22.0% for lung recipients (9/41).

CONCLUSIONS:
Single-agent use with itraconazole in heart or lung transplant recipients did not affect the rate of fungal infection as compared with previous reports. The incidence of fungal infection increased significantly within 3 months after escalation of immunosuppressant for treatment of acute rejection.

The aims of this study were to examine the phase behavior of itraconazole-phenol mixtures and assess the feasibility of topical formulations of itraconazole using eutectic mixture systems. Itraconazole-phenol eutectic mixtures were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The skin permeation rates of itraconazole-phenol eutectic formulations were determined using Franz diffusion cells fitted with excised hairless mouse skins. Itraconazole can form eutectic compounds with phenol, and the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carbonyl group in the itraconazole and hydroxyl group in phenol play a major role in itraconazole-phenol eutectic formation. Despite its high molecular weight and hydrophobicity, the drug (i.e., itraconazole) can be permeated through excised hairless mouse skins from itraconazole-phenol eutectic formulations. The findings of this study emphasize the capabilities of the topical application of itraconazole via external preparations.

The lung is an attractive target for drug delivery due to noninvasive administration via inhalation aerosols, avoidance of first-pass metabolism, direct delivery to the site of action for the treatment of respiratory diseases, and the availability of a huge surface area for local drug action and systemic absorption of drug. Colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery offer many advantages such as the potential to achieve relatively uniform distribution of drug dose among the alveoli, achievement of improved solubility of the drug from its own aqueous solubility, a sustained drug release which consequently reduces dosing frequency, improves patient compliance, decreases incidence of side effects, and the potential of drug internalization by cells. This review focuses on the current status and explores the potential of colloidal carriers (ie, nanocarrier systems) in pulmonary drug delivery with special attention to their pharmaceutical aspects. Manufacturing processes, in vitro/in vivo evaluation methods, and regulatory/toxicity issues of nanomedicines in pulmonary delivery are also discussed.

Oligomers incorporating the tetrapeptide MSH4, the minimum active sequence of melanocyte stimulating hormone, were synthesized by an A2 + B2 strategy involving microwave-assisted copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. A2 contained an MSH4 core while B2 contained a (Pro-Gly)3 spacer. Soluble mixtures containing compounds with up to eight MSH4 units were obtained from oligomerizations at high monomer concentrations. The avidities of several oligomeric mixtures were evaluated by means of a competitive binding assay using HEK293 cells engineered to overexpress the melanocortin 4 receptor. When based on total MSH4 concentrations, avidities were only minimally enhanced compared with a monovalent control. The lack of variation in the effect of ligands on probe binding is consistent with high off rates for MSH4 in both monovalent and oligomeric constructs relative to that of the competing probe.

PURPOSE:
Mutations in BEST1, encoding Bestrophin-1 (Best1), cause Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) and other inherited retinal degenerative diseases. Best1 is an integral membrane protein localized to the basolateral plasma membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Data from numerous in vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated that Best1 regulates intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Although it is known from in vitro and crystal structure data that Best1 is also a calcium-activated anion channel, evidence for Best1 functioning as a channel in human RPE is lacking. To assess Best1-associated channel activity in the RPE, we examined the transepithelial electrical properties of fetal human RPE (fhRPE) cells, which express endogenous Best1.

METHODS:
Using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, we overexpressed Best1 and the BVMD mutant Best1(W93C) in fhRPE cells and assessed resting transepithelial potential (TEP), transepithelial resistance, short circuit current (Isc), and intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Cl(-) currents were directly measured in transfected HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp.

RESULTS:
Best1(W93C) showed ablated Cl(-) currents and, when co-expressed, suppressed the channel activity of Best1 in HEK293 cells. In fhRPE, overexpression of Best1 increased TEP and Isc, while Best1(W93C) diminished TEP and Isc. Substitution of Cl(-) in the bath media resulted in a significant reduction of Isc in monolayers overexpressing Best1, but no significant Isc change in monolayers expressing Best1(W93C). We removed Ca(2+) as a limit on transepithelial electrical properties by treating cells with ionomycin, and found that changes in Isc and TEP for monolayers expressing Best1 were absent in monolayers expressing Best1(W93C). Similarly, inhibition of calcium-activated anion channels with niflumic acid reduced both Isc and TEP of control and Best1 monolayers, but did not notably affect Best1(W93C) monolayers. Stimulation with extracellular ATP induced an increase in TEP in control monolayers that was greater than that observed in those expressing Best1(W93C). Examination of [Ca(2+)]i following ATP stimulation demonstrated that the expression of Best1(W93C) impaired intracellular Ca(2+) signaling.

CONCLUSIONS:
These data indicate that Best1 activity strongly influences electrophysiology and Ca(2+) signaling in RPE cells, and that a common BVMD mutation disrupts both of these parameters. Our findings support the hypothesis that Best1 functions as an anion channel in human RPE.

Mammalian cells generally regulate their intracellular pH (pHi) via collaboration between Na(+)-H+ exchanger and HCO3- transport. In addition, a number of normal mammalian cells have been identified that express H(+)-adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases) in their plasma membranes. Because tumor cells often maintain a high pHi, we hypothesized that they might functionally express H(+)-ATPases in their plasma membranes. In the first phase of the present study, we screened 19 normal and tumorigenic human cell lines for the presence of plasmalemmal H(+)-ATPase activity using bafilomycin A1 to inhibit V-type H(+)-ATPase and Sch-28080 to inhibit P-type H(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Bafilomycin A1 decreased pHi in the six tumor cell lines with the highest resting pHi in the absence of HCO3-. Sch-28080 did not affect pHi in any of the human cells. Simultaneous measurement of pH in the cytoplasm and in the endosomes/lysosomes localized the activity of bafilomycin to the plasma membrane in three cell lines. In the second phase of this study, these three cell lines were shown to recover from NH4(+)-induced acid loads in the absence of Na+. This recovery was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, bafilomycin A1, and ATP depletion and was not significantly affected by vanadate, Sch-28080, or hexamethyl amiloride. These results indicate that a vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase is expressed in the plasma membrane of some tumor cells.

Early investigations into the nature of the coupling between energy transduction and metabolism in smooth muscle, particularly from the laboratories of Bülbring and Lundholm, suggested that specific metabolic pathways could independently supply energy for ion transport and actin-myosin interactions. Subsequent work has solidified the concept that oxidative phosphorylation is specifically coupled to tension generation and maintenance, whereas, aerobic glycolysis is not only a vital characteristic of smooth muscle metabolism, but also is likely to be independently coupled to Na-K transport at the plasmalemma. The independence of oxidative and glycolytic metabolism is reflected as a compartmentation of carbohydrate metabolism in the porcine carotid artery. The coupling of these independent metabolic pathways with specific energy utilizing processes, indicates a means by which energy production and transduction can be closely and efficiently regulated. The coupling of glycogenolysis to mitochondrial respiration may have evolved as a direct response to the energetic needs of VSM. That is, the large glycogenolytic response in the initial minutes of stimulation may be necessary to maximize the cellular production of ATP during the presteady state. Likewise, the coupling between aerobic glycolysis and Na-K transport indicates a sensitive and efficient means of coordinating energy metabolism with ion transport at the membrane level. Additionally, the regulation of substrate supply, i.e. glucose transport, also may be closely coordinated with changes in ion transport. One may speculate that alterations in the microenvironment of each compartment can independently regulate intermediary metabolism and therefore allow the cell to quickly and efficiently respond to localized stimuli. Thus, stimulation of Na-K transport could effectively regulate energy production at the membrane level without mobilizing or competing with the energy transduction of other cellular processes. This compartmentation of energy utilization may be highly advantageous, since oxidative metabolism is closely coordinated with mechanical activity and therefore regulation of blood flow. Future investigations will attempt to elucidate which intracellular signals which are responsible for the regulation of these functionally independent compartments of energy metabolism and transduction in VSM. In more general terms, our findings provide a basis from which future questions concerning the regulation of cellular metabolism must be directed. The cellular cytoplasm can no longer be envisioned as a homogeneous compartment, but rather a complex array of functional subcompartments which may be individual

In vascular smooth muscle, oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis are independently regulated. Previous studies indicated that the independent regulation of these pathways was related to a compartmentation of carbohydrate metabolism. To further study carbohydrate metabolism, glucose transport and the incorporation of radiolabel from glucose into glycogen and lactate were measured after the oxidative and glycolytic pathways were independently altered. Ouabain stimulated mechanical activity, oxygen consumption, and glycogenolysis, whereas lactate production was decreased. Although glycogenolysis was substantial, glucose was the only substrate for lactate, indicating that intermediates derived from glycogen do not mix with those from glucose uptake. Thus glycogenolysis and glycolysis are carried out by independent enzymatic pathways. Insulin-stimulated lactate production and glucose transport without affecting the other parameters. Again, lactate was produced only from glucose. Phenytoin decreased isometric tension and oxygen consumption, whereas stimulating lactate production and glycogenolysis. Glycogen was the primary substrate for the lactate produced. Our findings indicate that the compartmentation of substrate utilization is ascribable to the coordination of glycogenolysis with increases in oxygen consumption and the coupling of glycolysis to the Na-K-adenosine triphosphatase. The coupling of independent energy providing pathways to specific endergonic processes indicates a mechanism by which cellular energetic efficiency may be optimized.

Previous work has indicated that there are at least two functionally independent Embden-Meyerhof pathways within the vascular smooth muscle of porcine carotid artery. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the isotopic equilibrium between medium glucose and intracellular glucose 6-phosphate under basal conditions and after 30 min of mechanical activation, during which time the rate of glycogenolysis has been found to be substantial. Under basal conditions, the specific activity of glucose 6-phosphate equilibrated to a level which was not in isotopic equilibrium with medium glucose suggesting that there is a significant pool of glucose 6-phosphate which is not readily accessible to medium glucose. After 15 min of mechanical activation, the specific activity of intracellular glucose 6-phosphate was found to decrease significantly from its apparent steady-state distribution, indicating that glycogen was likely to be a significant source for glucose 6-phosphate. Since the specific activity of lactate was unaltered from its equilibrium distribution under similar stimulus conditions, these findings substantiate the existence of at least two independent pools of glucose 6-phosphate.

NHE8 is a newly identified NHE isoform expressed in rat intestine. To date, the kinetic characteristics and the intestinal segmental distribution of this NHE isoform have not been studied. This current work was performed to determine the gene expression pattern of the NHE8 transporter along the gastrointestinal tract, as well as its affinity for Na(+), H(+), and sensitivity to known NHE inhibitors HOE694 and S3226. NHE8 was differentially expressed along the GI tract. Higher NHE8 expression was seen in stomach, duodenum, and ascending colon in human, while higher NHE8 expression was seen in jejunum, ileum and colon in adult mouse. Moreover, the expression level of NHE8 is much higher in the stomach and jejunum in young mice compared with adult mice. To evaluate the functional characterictics of NHE8, the pH indicator SNARF-4 was used to monitor the rate of intra-cellular pH (pH(i)) recovery after an NH(4)Cl induced acid load in NHE8 cDNA transfected PS120 cells. The NHE8 cDNA transfected cells exhibited a sodium-dependent proton exchanger activity having a Km for pH(i) of approximately pH 6.5, and a Km for sodium of approximately 23 mM. Low concentration of HOE694 (1 microM) had no effect on NHE8 activity, while high concentration (10 microM) significantly reduced NHE8 activity. In the presence of 80 microM S3226, the NHE8 activity was also inhibited significantly. In conclusion, our work suggests that NHE8 is expressed along the gastrointestinal tract and NHE8 is a functional Na(+)/H(+) exchanger with kinetic characteristics that differ from other apically expressed NHE isoforms.

The energy metabolism of two continuous cell lines of renal origin, MDCK (Madin-Darby dog kidney) and A6 (toad kidney), was investigated by measuring the oxygen consumption (QO2) and lactate production (Jlac) by cells taken into suspension from monolayer cultures. Cells suspended from fully differentiated monolayers produce approximately 80% of their ATP requirements from oxidative metabolism. The interrelationship between ion transport and metabolism was determined by analyzing the ouabain sensitive components of intermediary metabolism under control conditions and after the stimulation of active Na-K transport with nystatin. In both cell lines, approximately 25% of the net rate of ATP production was inhibited by ouabain. Ouabain inhibited Jlac by 40% in MDCK and 45% in A6 cells, whereas QO2 was decreased by only 20% in both cell lines. In the presence of 0.05 mg nystatin/mg cell protein, ouabain sensitive Jlac increased by 75% in MDCK and was more than doubled in A6, whereas the ouabain-sensitive QO2 was not statistically different than control. This preferential stimulation of glycolysis with nystatin was not due to a limited capacity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation since nystatin treatment of cells incubated without glucose (no glycolysis) significantly elevated the rate of QO2. These data demonstrate that aerobic glycolysis is more sensitive than is QO2 to changes in hydrolytic activity of the Na-K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), in both cell lines.

Fluorescent probes offer insight into the highly localized and rapid molecular events that underlie cell function. However, methods are required that can efficiently transform the limited signals from such probes into high-resolution images. An algorithm has now been developed that produces highly accurate images of fluorescent probe distribution inside cells with minimal light exposure and a conventional light microscope. This method provides resolution nearly four times greater than that currently available from any fluorescence microscope and was used to study several biological problems.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) plays a critical role in oxidative phosphorylation as the primary source of reducing equivalents to the respiratory chain. Using a modified fluorescence microscope, we have obtained spectra and images of the blue autofluorescence from single rat cardiac myocytes. The optical setup permitted rapid acquisition of fluorescence emission spectra (390-595 nm) or intensified digital video images of individual myocytes. The spectra showed a broad fluorescence centered at 447 +/- 0.2 nm, consistent with mitochondrial NADH. Addition of cyanide resulted in a 100 +/- 10% increase in fluorescence, while the uncoupler FCCP resulted in a 82 +/- 4% decrease. These two transitions were consistent with mitochondrial NADH and implied that the myocytes were 44 +/- 6% reduced under the resting control conditions. Intracellular fluorescent structures were observed that correlated with the distribution of a mitochondrial selective fluorescent probe (DASPMI), the mitochondrial distribution seen in published electron micrographs, and a metabolic digital subtraction image of the cyanide fluorescence transition. These data are consistent with the notion that the blue autofluorescence of rat cardiac myocytes originates from mitochondrial NADH.

The relation between the activity of the Na+-K+-ATPase and the metabolic source of ATP was investigated in suspensions of MDCK cells. The pump activity of Na+-K+-ATPase was estimated from the initial rate of ouabain-sensitive K+ uptake into K+-depleted cells. Uptake was initiated by the reintroduction of K+ to the medium in which the cells were suspended. The metabolic source of ATP was varied by changing the substrates supplied to the suspension. Cells respiring on glutamine produced ATP from oxidative metabolism alone, whereas cells incubated with glucose and glutamine produced ATP via glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Over a wide range of extracellular K+ concentrations, the initial rate of K+ uptake was faster in cells incubated with glucose and glutamine when compared with cells incubated with glutamine alone. Kinetic analysis together with ouabain-binding data demonstrated that this increase in K+ uptake was due to an increase in maximal velocity (Vmax) at a constant number of Na+-K+-ATPase transport sites. In addition, steady-state studies revealed that the addition of glucose to K+-depleted cells respiring on glutamine alone resulted in a net ouabain-sensitive influx of K+. These data demonstrate that in MDCK cells the maximal capacity for transport via the Na+-K+-ATPase is greater when ATP is produced from both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation than when ATP is produced from oxidative phosphorylation alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Thyroid hormone, specifically thyroxine, alters cytoskeletal organization in astrocytes by modulating actin polymerization and, in turn, regulates the turnover of the short-lived membrane protein, type II iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase. In the absence of thyroxine, approximately 35% of the total cellular actin is depolymerized, and greater than 90% of the deiodinase is found in the plasma membrane and not associated with the cytoskeleton. Addition of thyroxine promotes actin polymerization and decreases the depolymerized actin to approximately 10% of the total actin pool, induces binding of the deiodinase to F-actin, and promotes rapid internalization of the enzyme. These data provide direct evidence that the actin cytoskeleton participates in the inactivation pathway of the deiodinase by translocating this short-lived plasma membrane protein to an internal membrane pool.

Hexokinase isozyme I is proposed to be associated with mitochondria in vivo. Moreover, it has been suggested that this association is modulated in coordination with changes in cell metabolic state. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed the subcellular distribution of hexokinase relative to mitochondria in paraformaldehyde-fixed astrocytes using immunocytochemistry and quantitative three-dimensional confocal microscopy. Analysis of the extent of colocalization between hexokinase and mitochondria revealed that approximately 70% of cellular hexokinase is associated with mitochondria under basal metabolic conditions. In contrast to the immunocytochemical studies, between 15 to 40% of cellular hexokinase was found to be associated with mitochondria after fractionation of astrocyte cultures depending on the exact fractionation conditions. The discrepancy between fractionation studies and those based on imaging of distributions in fixed cells indicates the usefulness of using techniques that can evaluate the distributions of "cytosolic" enzymes in cells whose subcellular ultrastructure is not severely disrupted. To determine if hexokinase distribution is modulated in concert with changes in cell metabolism, the localization of hexokinase with mitochondria was evaluated after inhibition of glucose metabolism with 2-deoxyglucose. After incubation with 2-deoxyglucose there was an approximate 35% decrease in the amount of hexokinase associated with mitochondria. These findings support the hypothesis that hexokinase is bound to mitochondria in rat brain astrocytes in vivo, and that this association is sensitive to cell metabolic state.

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